Most recent Tribology Group publications are Open Access thanks to funding from the EPSRC.

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    Vladescu S-C, Putignano C, Marx N, Keppens T, Reddyhoff T, Dini Det al., 2019,

    The Percolation of Liquid Through a Compliant Seal-An Experimental and Theoretical Study

    Reddyhoff T, Schmidt A, Spikes H, 2019,

    Thermal Conductivity and Flash Temperature

    , TRIBOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 67, ISSN: 1023-8883
    Manieri F, Stadler K, Morales-Espejel GE, Kadiric Aet al., 2019,

    The origins of white etching cracks and their significance to rolling bearing failures

    , International Journal of Fatigue, Vol: 120, Pages: 107-133, ISSN: 0142-1123

    © 2018 The Authors Presence of white etching cracks has been widely associated with early failures of rolling bearings in a number of applications, with wind turbine gearbox bearings being the most frequently cited and practically significant example. Despite the recent research efforts, there is yet no universal agreement on the mechanisms of formation of these cracks and little direct evidence of their significance to bearing reliability. In an attempt to address this, this paper proposes a new theory on the origins and significance of white etching cracks. The paper provides systematic experimental evidence in support of this theory through rolling contact fatigue tests performed with AISI 52100 bearing steel specimens on a triple-disc machine over a wide range of contact conditions. The test results show that white etching cracks can be formed with base oils as well as commercially formulated transmission and engine oils. WECs were generated under slide-roll-ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.3, under positive and negative sliding, different contact pressures and specific film thicknesses ranging from 0.1 to 0.7. No white etching areas were ever observed without the associate crack being present, and it was also shown that white etching areas themselves can be produced in a pure rubbing contact of bearing steels under both lubricated and unlubricated conditions. These results provide direct evidence that the steel transformations that exhibit themselves as white etching areas are formed through rubbing of the existing crack faces, and that the chemical composition of the lubricant and the magnitude and direction of sliding are not the primary driver of WEC formation, in contrast to literature. Instead, the results presented here show that WECs are formed through the action of a specific stress history in time via the following mechanism: (i) Short-lived high contact stresses, which can be caused by a number of factors, act in the initial stages of the component

    Ewen J, Gao H, Mueser M, Dini Det al.,

    Shear heating, flow, and friction of confined molecular fluids at high pressure

    , Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, ISSN: 1463-9076

    Understanding the molecular-scale behavior of fluids confined and sheared between solid surfaces is important for many applications, particularly tribology where this often governs the macroscopic frictional response. In this study, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the effects of fluid and surface properties on the spatially resolved temperature and flow profiles, as well as friction. The severe pressure and shear rate conditions studied are representative of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime. In agreement with tribology experiments, flexible lubricant molecules give low friction, which increases linearly with logarithmic shear rate, while bulky traction fluids show higher friction, but a weaker shear rate dependence. Compared to lubricants, traction fluids show more significant shear heating and stronger shear localization. Models developed for macroscopic systems can be used to describe both the spatially resolved temperature profile shape and the mean film temperature rise. The thermal conductivity of the fluids increases with pressure and is significantly higher for lubricants compared to traction fluids, in agreement with experimental results. In a subset of simulations, the efficiency of the thermostat in one of the surfaces is reduced to represent surfaces with lower thermal conductivity. For these unsymmetrical systems, the flow and the temperature profiles become strongly asymmetric and some thermal slip can occur at the solid-fluid interface, despite the absence of velocity slip. The larger temperature rises and steeper velocity gradients in these cases lead to large reductions in friction, particularly at high pressure and shear rate.

    Sufian A, Knight C, O'Sullivan C, Van Wachem B, Dini Det al.,

    Ability of a pore network model to predict fluid flow and drag in saturated granular materials

    , Computers and Geotechnics, ISSN: 0266-352X

    The local flow field and seepage induced drag obtained from Pore Network Models (PNM) is compared to Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) simulations, for a range of linear graded and bimodal samples. PNM were generated using a weighted Delaunay Tessellation (DT), along with the Modified Delaunay Tessellation (MDT) which considers the merging of tetrahedral Delaunay cells. Two local conductivity models are compared in simulating fluid flow in the PNM. The local pressure field was very accurately captured, while the local flux (flow rate) exhibited more scatter and sensitivity to the choice of the local conductance model. PNM based on the MDT clearly provided a better correlation with the IBM. There was close similarity in the network shortest paths, indicating that the PNM captures dominant flow channels. Comparison of streamline profiles demonstrated that local pressure drops coincided with the pore constrictions. A rigorous validation was undertaken for the drag force calculated from the PNM by comparing with analytical solutions for ordered array of spheres. This method was subsequently applied to all samples, and the calculated force was compared with the IBM data. Linear graded samples were able to calculate the force with reasonable accuracy, while the bimodal samples exhibited slightly more scatter.

    Wen J, Dini D, Reddyhoff T, 2019,

    Design and optimization of a liquid ring thrust bearing

    , Tribology International, ISSN: 0301-679X

    Liquid menisci at millimeter length scales and smaller exhibit large Laplace pressures. To utilise these effects, liquid ring bearings have recently been developed, which consist of liquid rings confined between alternate superhydrophobic and hydrophilic patterns. We present a detailed experimental and theoretical performance analysis of such bearings. For a single, 100 μm thickness, liquid ring, the maximum supporting force is 0.13 N, which decreases with increasing the ring misalignment. The frictional torque increases linearly with rotational speed until a critical Reynolds number is reached. Above this, an instability occurs due the concave liquid ring meniscus, which further increases friction. These results show how liquid ring bearings can be optimised.

    Puhan D, Nevshupa R, Wong JSS, Reddyhoff Tet al., 2019,

    Transient aspects of plasma luminescence induced by triboelectrification of polymers

    , TRIBOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 130, Pages: 366-377, ISSN: 0301-679X
    Dzepina B, Balint D, Dini D, 2019,

    A phase field model of pressure-assisted sintering

    , JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Vol: 39, Pages: 173-182, ISSN: 0955-2219
    Porte E, Cann P, Masen M, 2019,

    Fluid load support does not explain tribological performance of PVA hydrogels

    Geng Z, Puhan D, Reddyhoff T, 2019,

    Using acoustic emission to characterize friction and wear in dry sliding steel contacts

    , Tribology International, ISSN: 0301-679X
    Vlădescu S-C, Fowell M, Mattsson L, Reddyhoff Tet al., 2019,

    The effects of laser surface texture applied to internal combustion engine journal bearing shells – An experimental study

    , Tribology International, ISSN: 0301-679X
    Carpenter G, Bozorgi S, Vladescu S, Forte A, Myant C, Potineni R, Reddyhoff T, Baier Set al., 2019,

    A study of saliva lubrication using a compliant oral mimic

    , Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN: 0268-005X
    Ma S, Scaraggi M, Yan C, Wang X, Gorb SN, Dini D, Zhou Fet al., 2019,

    Bioinspired 3D Printed Locomotion Devices Based on Anisotropic Friction

    , SMALL, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1613-6810
    Jeffreys S, Di Mare L, Liu X, Morgan N, Wong JSSet al., 2019,

    Elastohydrodynamic lubricant flow with nanoparticle tracking

    , RSC Advances, Vol: 9, Pages: 1441-1450

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Lubricants operating in elastohydrodynamic (EHD) contacts exhibit local variations in rheological properties when the contact pressure rises. Direct evidence of this behaviour has only been obtained by examining through-thickness velocity profiles U(z) of lubricants in a contact using luminescence-based imaging velocimetry. In the present study, nanoparticles (NPs) are added to polybutene (PB) as tracers to investigate the effect of pressure on the flow of PB in an EHD contact. By tracking NPs in the contact, particle velocity distributions f(U) under various pressures are obtained and found to be pressure dependent. Results show quantitatively that f(U) and U(z) are correlated and thus confirm that U(z) of PB changes from Couette flow to partial plug flow above a critical pressure. This confirmation highlights the complexity of lubricant rheology in a high pressure contact.

    Jean-Fulcrand A, Maser MA, Bremner T, Wong JSSet al., 2019,

    Effect of temperature on tribological performance of polyetheretherketone-polybenzimidazole blend

    , TRIBOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 129, Pages: 5-15, ISSN: 0301-679X
    Rosenkranz A, Costa HL, Profito F, Gachot C, Medina S, Dini Det al., 2019,

    Influence of surface texturing on hydrodynamic friction in plane converging bearings - An experimental and numerical approach

    , Tribology International, ISSN: 0301-679X
    Dench J, di Mare L, Morgan N, Wong JSSet al., 2018,

    Comparing the molecular and global rheology of a fluid under high pressures

    , PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 20, Pages: 30267-30280, ISSN: 1463-9076
    Tan Z, Dini D, Rodriguez y Baena F, Forte AEet al., 2018,

    Composite hydrogel: A high fidelity soft tissue mimic for surgery

    , MATERIALS & DESIGN, Vol: 160, Pages: 886-894, ISSN: 0264-1275
    Dawczyk J, Ware E, Ardakani M, Russo J, Spikes Het al., 2018,

    Use of FIB to Study ZDDP Tribofilms

    , TRIBOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 66, ISSN: 1023-8883
    Kontou A, Southby M, Morgan N, Spikes HAet al., 2018,

    Influence of Dispersant and ZDDP on Soot Wear

    , TRIBOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 66, ISSN: 1023-8883
    Ewen JP, Heyes DM, Dini D, 2018,

    Advances in nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of lubricants and additives

    , FRICTION, Vol: 6, Pages: 349-386, ISSN: 2223-7690
    Vladescu S-C, Marx N, Fernandez L, Barcelo F, Spikes Het al., 2018,

    Hydrodynamic Friction of Viscosity-Modified Oils in a Journal Bearing Machine

    , TRIBOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 66, ISSN: 1023-8883
    Ebrahimi MT, Dini D, Balint DS, Sutton AP, Ozbayraktar Set al., 2018,

    Discrete crack dynamics: A planar model of crack propagation and crack-inclusion interactions in brittle materials

    Verschueren J, Gurrutxaga-Lerma B, Balint DS, Sutton AP, Dini Det al., 2018,

    Instabilities of High Speed Dislocations

    , PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 121, ISSN: 0031-9007
    Hartinger M, Reddyhoff T, 2018,

    CFD modeling compared to temperature and friction measurements of an EHL line contact

    , TRIBOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 126, Pages: 144-152, ISSN: 0301-679X
    Yu M, Arana C, Evangelou SA, Dini D, Cleaver GDet al., 2018,

    Parallel Active Link Suspension: A Quarter-Car Experimental Study

    , IEEE-ASME TRANSACTIONS ON MECHATRONICS, Vol: 23, Pages: 2066-2077, ISSN: 1083-4435
    Gattinoni C, Ewen JP, Dini D, 2018,

    Adsorption of Surfactants on alpha-Fe2O3(0001): A Density Functional Theory Study

    , JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, Vol: 122, Pages: 20817-20826, ISSN: 1932-7447
    Marx N, Fernandez L, Barcelo F, Spikes Het al., 2018,

    Shear Thinning and Hydrodynamic Friction of Viscosity Modifier-Containing Oils. Part I: Shear Thinning Behaviour

    , TRIBOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 66, ISSN: 1023-8883
    Marx N, Fernández L, Barceló F, Spikes Het al., 2018,

    Shear Thinning and Hydrodynamic Friction of Viscosity Modifier-Containing Oils. Part II: Impact of Shear Thinning on Journal Bearing Friction

    , Tribology Letters, Vol: 66, ISSN: 1023-8883

    © 2018, The Author(s). In a companion paper, the temporary shear thinning behaviour of a series of viscosity-modifier (VM)-containing blends was studied over a wide shear rate and temperature range [Marx et al. in Tribol Lett,]. It was found that for almost all VMs the resulting data could be collapsed on a single viscosity versus reduced strain rate curve using time–temperature superposition. This made it possible to derive a single equation to describe the viscosity–shear rate behaviour for each VM blend. In the current paper, these shear thinning equations are used in a Reynolds-based hydrodynamic lubrication model to explore and compare the impact of different VMs on the film thickness and friction of a lubricated, isothermal journal bearing. It is found that VMs reduce friction and especially power loss markedly at high shaft speeds, while still contributing to increased hydrodynamic film thickness at low speeds. The model indicates that VMs can contribute to reducing friction in two separate ways. One is via shear thinning. This occurs especially at high bearing speeds when shear rates are large and can result in a 50% friction reduction compared to the equivalent isoviscous oil at low temperatures for the blends studied. The second is via their impact on viscosity index, which means that for a set viscosity at high temperature the low-shear-rate (and thus the high shear rate) viscosity of a high-VI oil, and consequently its hydrodynamic friction, will be lower at low temperatures than that of a low-VI oil. The identification and quantification of these two alternative ways to reduce friction should assist in the design of new, fuel-efficient VMs.

    Reddyhoff T, Underwood RJ, Sayles RS, Spikes HAet al., 2018,

    Temperature measurement of debris particles in EHL contacts

    Campen S, Smith B, Wong J, 2018,

    Deposition of Asphaltene from Destabilized Dispersions in Heptane-Toluene

    , ENERGY & FUELS, Vol: 32, Pages: 9159-9171, ISSN: 0887-0624
    Vakis AI, Yastrebov VA, Scheibert J, Nicola L, Dini D, Minfray C, Almqvist A, Paggi M, Lee S, Limbert G, Molinari JF, Anciaux G, Aghababaei R, Restrepo SE, Papangelo A, Cammarata A, Nicolini P, Putignano C, Carbone G, Stupkiewicz S, Lengiewicz J, Costagliola G, Bosia F, Guarino R, Pugno NM, Mueser MH, Ciavarella Met al., 2018,

    Modeling and simulation in tribology across scales: An overview

    , TRIBOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 125, Pages: 169-199, ISSN: 0301-679X
    Shen L, Denner F, Morgan N, van Wachem B, Dini Det al., 2018,

    Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    , JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS, Vol: 847, Pages: 644-663, ISSN: 0022-1120
    Kanca Y, Milner P, Dini D, Amis AAet al., 2018,

    Tribological evaluation of biomedical polycarbonate urethanes against articular cartilage

    Vaghela U, Williams HRT, Gupte C, Cann Pet al., 2018,

    The development of a small-scale wear test for CoCrMo specimens with human synovial fluid

    , Biotribology, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-10

    © 2018 The Authors A new test was developed to measure friction and wear of hip implant materials under reciprocating sliding conditions. The method requires a very small amount of lubricant (<3 ml) which allows testing of human synovial fluid. Friction and wear of Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum (CoCrMo) material pairs were measured for a range of model and human synovial fluid samples. The initial development of the test assessed the effect of fluid volume and bovine calf serum (BCS) concentration on friction and wear. In a second series of tests human synovial fluid (HSF) was used. The wear scar size (depth and volume) on the disc was dependent on protein content and reduced significantly for increasing BCS concentration. The results showed that fluid volumes of <1.5 ml were affected by evaporative loss effectively increasing the protein concentration resulting in anomalously lower wear. At the end of the test thick deposits were observed in and around the wear scars on the disc and ball; these were analysed by Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy. The deposits were composed primarily of denatured proteins and similar IR spectra were obtained from the BCS and HSF tests. The analysis confirmed the importance of SF proteins in determining wear of CoCrMo couples.

    Heyes DM, Dini D, Smith ER, 2018,

    Incremental viscosity by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and the Eyring model

    , JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 148, ISSN: 0021-9606
    Ewen JP, Kannam SK, Todd BD, Dini Det al., 2018,

    Slip of Alkanes Confined between Surfactant Monolayers Adsorbed on Solid Surfaces

    , LANGMUIR, Vol: 34, Pages: 3864-3873, ISSN: 0743-7463
    , 2018,

    Prediction of micropitting damage in gear teeth contacts considering the concurrent effects of surface fatigue and mild wear

    , Wear, Vol: 398-399, Pages: 99-115, ISSN: 0043-1648

    © 2017 The Authors The present paper studies the occurrence of micropitting damage in gear teeth contacts. An existing general micropitting model, which accounts for mixed lubrication conditions, stress history, and fatigue damage accumulation, is adapted here to deal with transient contact conditions that exist during meshing of gear teeth. The model considers the concurrent effects of surface fatigue and mild wear on the evolution of tooth surface roughness and therefore captures the complexities of damage accumulation on tooth flanks in a more realistic manner than hitherto possible. Applicability of the model to gear contact conditions is first confirmed by comparing its predictions to relevant experiments carried out on a triple-disc contact fatigue rig. Application of the model to a pair of meshing spur gears shows that under low specific oil film thickness conditions, the continuous competition between surface fatigue and mild wear determines the overall level as well as the distribution of micropitting damage along the tooth flanks. The outcome of this competition in terms of the final damage level is dependent on contact sliding speed, pressure and specific film thickness. In general, with no surface wear, micropitting damage increases with decreasing film thickness as may be expected, but when some wear is present micropitting damage may reduce as film thickness is lowered to the point where wear takes over and removes the asperity peaks and hence reduces asperity interactions. Similarly, when wear is negligible, increased sliding can increase the level of micropitting by increasing the number of asperity stress cycles, but when wear is present, an increase in sliding may lead to a reduction in micropitting due to faster removal of asperity peaks. The results suggest that an ideal situation in terms of surface damage prevention is that in which some mild wear at the start of gear pair operation adequately wears-in the tooth surfaces, thus reducing sub

    Hili J, Pelletier C, Jacobs L, Olver A, Reddyhoff Tet al., 2018,

    High-Speed Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication by a Dilute Oil-in-Water Emulsion

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 61, Pages: 287-294, ISSN: 1040-2004

    © 2018 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers. When a concentrated contact is lubricated at low speed by an oil-in-water emulsion, a film of pure oil typically separates the surfaces (stage 1). At higher speeds, starvation occurs (stage 2) and the film is thinner than would be expected if lubricated by neat oil. However, at the very highest speeds, film thickness increases again (stage 3), though little is known for certain about either the film composition or the mechanism of lubrication, despite some theoretical speculation. In this article, we report the film thickness in a ball-on-flat contact, lubricated by an oil-in-water emulsion, at speeds of up to 20 m/s, measured using a new high-speed test rig. We also investigated the sliding traction and the phase composition of the film, using fluorescent and infrared microscopy techniques. Results show that, as the speed is increased, starvation is followed by a progressive change in film composition, from pure oil to mostly water. At the highest speeds, a film builds up that has a phase composition similar to the bulk emulsion. This tends to support the “microemulsion” view rather than the “dynamic concentration” theory.

    Masen M, Cann PME, 2018,

    Friction measurements with molten chocolate

    , Tribology Letters, Vol: 66, ISSN: 1023-8883

    A novel test is reported which allows the measurement of the friction of molten chocolate in a model tongue–palate rubbing contact. Friction was measured over a rubbing period of 150 s for a range of commercial samples with different cocoa content (85–5% w/w). Most of the friction curves had a characteristic pattern: initially a rapid increase occurs as the high-viscosity chocolate melt is sheared in the contact region followed by friction drop as the film breaks down. The exceptions were the very high (85%) and very low (~ 5%) cocoa content samples which gave fairly constant friction traces over the test time. Differences were observed in the initial maximum and final friction coefficients depending on chocolate composition. Generally, the initial maximum friction increased with increasing cocoa content. At the end of the test, the rubbed films on the lower slide were examined by optical microscopy and infrared micro-reflection spectroscopy. In the rubbed track, the chocolate structure was severely degraded and predominately composed of lipid droplets, which was confirmed by the IR spectra. The new test provides a method to distinguish between the friction behaviour of different chocolate formulations in a rubbing low-pressure contact. It also allows us to identify changes in the degraded chocolate film that can be linked to the friction profile. Further development of the test method is required to improve simulation of the tongue–palate contact including the effect of saliva and this will be the next stage of the research.

    Spikes H, 2018,

    Stress-augmented thermal activation: Tribology feels the force

    , FRICTION, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-31, ISSN: 2223-7690
    Lu J, Reddyhoff T, Dini D, 2018,

    3D Measurements of Lubricant and Surface Temperatures Within an Elastohydrodynamic Contact

    , TRIBOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 66, ISSN: 1023-8883
    Guo Y, di Mare L, Li RKY, Wong JSSet al., 2018,

    Cargo Release from Polymeric Vesicles under Shear

    , POLYMERS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2073-4360
    , 2018,

    Do uniform tangential interfacial stresses enhance adhesion?

    , Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol: 112, Pages: 145-156, ISSN: 0022-5096

    © 2017 Elsevier Ltd We present theoretical arguments, based on linear elasticity and thermodynamics, to show that interfacial tangential stresses in sliding adhesive soft contacts may lead to a significant increase of the effective energy of adhesion. A sizable expansion of the contact area is predicted in conditions corresponding to such scenario. These results are easily explained and are valid under the assumptions that: (i) sliding at the interface does not lead to any loss of adhesive interaction and (ii) spatial fluctuations of frictional stresses can be considered negligible. Our results are seemingly supported by existing experiments, and show that frictional stresses may lead to an increase of the effective energy of adhesion depending on which conditions are established at the interface of contacting bodies in the presence of adhesive forces.

    Kanca Y, Milner P, Dini D, Amis AAet al., 2018,

    Tribological properties of PVA/PVP blend hydrogels against articular cartilage

    Forte AE, Galvan S, Dini D, 2018,

    Models and tissue mimics for brain shift simulations

    , BIOMECHANICS AND MODELING IN MECHANOBIOLOGY, Vol: 17, Pages: 249-261, ISSN: 1617-7959
    Milner PE, Parkes M, Puetzer JL, Chapman R, Stevens MM, Cann P, Jeffers JRTet al., 2018,

    A low friction, biphasic and boundary lubricating hydrogel for cartilage replacement

    , ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, Vol: 65, Pages: 102-111, ISSN: 1742-7061
    Yang S, Wong JSS, Zhou F, 2018,

    Ionic Liquid Additives for Mixed and Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

    , TRIBOLOGY TRANSACTIONS, Vol: 61, Pages: 816-826, ISSN: 1040-2004
    Ferretti A, Giacopini M, Mastrandrea L, Dini Det al., 2018,

    Investigation of the Influence of Different Asperity Contact Models on the Elastohydrodynamic Analysis of a Conrod Small-End/Piston Pin Coupling

    , WCX World Congress Experience

    © 2018 SAE International. All Rights Reserved. Bearings represent one of the main responsible of friction losses in internal combustion engines and their lubrication performance has a crucial influence on the operating condition of the engine. In particular, the conrod small-end bearing is one of the most critical engine parts from a tribological point of view since limited contact surfaces have to sustain high inertial and combustion forces. In this contribution an analysis is performed of the tribological behaviour of the lubricated contact between the piston pin and the conrod small-end of a high performance motorbike engine. An algorithm is employed based on a complementarity formulation of the cavitation problem. A comparison between two different approaches to simulate the asperity contact problem is performed, the former based on the standard Greenwood-Tripp theory and the latter based on a complementarity formulation of the asperity contact problem. A model validation is performed by comparing the results with those obtained adopting the commercial software AVL Excite Power Unit. Similar results are obtained from both the approaches, if a proper calibration of the model input data is performed. However, a remarkable sensitivity is highlighted of the results obtained using the Greenwood/Tripp model to the adjustment parameters. The realistic (engineering) difficulty in defining and identifying the roughness data and their purely statistical nature returns results that may be afflicted by a dose of uncertainty. Considering that results of such simulations usually offer guidelines for a correct design of the coupling, further investigations are suggested to identify a relationship between simply available roughness data and model input, starting from a direct experimental measurements of real roughness profiles.

    , 2017,

    Quarter-Car Experimental Study for Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension

    , IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, ISSN: 1063-6536

    CCBY In this paper, the recently introduced series active variable geometry suspension (SAVGS) for road vehicles is experimentally studied. A realistic quarter-car test rig equipped with double-wishbone suspension is designed and built to mimic an actual grand tourer real axle, with a single-link variant of the SAVGS and a road excitation mechanism implemented. A linear equivalent modeling method is adopted to synthesize an H-infinity control scheme for the SAVGS, with the geometric nonlinearity compensated. Simulations with a theoretical nonlinear quarter-car indicate the SAVGS potential to enhance suspension performance, in terms of ride comfort and road holding. Practical features in the test rig are further considered and included in the nonlinear model to compensate the difference between the theoretical and testing behaviors. Experiments with a sinusoidal road, a smoothed bump and hole, and a random road are performed to evaluate the SAVGS practical feasibility and performance improvement, the accuracy of the model, and the robustness of the control schemes. Compared with the conventional passive suspension, ride comfort improvements of up to 41&#x0025; without any deterioration of the suspension deflection are demonstrated, while the SAVGS actuator power is kept very low, at levels below 500 W.

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