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    Zhong Q, Fan X, Luo X, Toni Fet al., 2019,

    An explainable multi-attribute decision model based on argumentation

    , EXPERT SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS, Vol: 117, Pages: 42-61, ISSN: 0957-4174
    Kuntz J, Thomas P, Stan G-B, Barahona Met al., 2019,

    The exit time finite state projection scheme: bounding exit distributions and occupation measures of continuous-time Markov chains

    We introduce the exit time finite state projection (ETFSP) scheme, atruncation-based method that yields approximations to the exit distribution andoccupation measure associated with the time of exit from a domain (i.e., thetime of first passage to the complement of the domain) of time-homogeneouscontinuous-time Markov chains. We prove that: (i) the computed approximationsbound the measures from below; (ii) the total variation distances between theapproximations and the measures decrease monotonically as states are added tothe truncation; and (iii) the scheme converges, in the sense that, as thetruncation tends to the entire state space, the total variation distances tendto zero. Furthermore, we give a computable bound on the total variationdistance between the exit distribution and its approximation, and we delineatethe cases in which the bound is sharp. We also revisit the related finite stateprojection scheme and give a comprehensive account of its theoreticalproperties. We demonstrate the use of the ETFSP scheme by applying it to twobiological examples: the computation of the first passage time associated withthe expression of a gene, and the fixation times of competing species subjectto demographic noise.

    Kormushev P, Ugurlu B, Caldwell DG, Tsagarakis NGet al., 2019,

    Learning to exploit passive compliance for energy-efficient gait generation on a compliant humanoid

    , AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS, Vol: 43, Pages: 79-95, ISSN: 0929-5593
    Cocarascu O, Toni F, 2018,

    Combining Deep Learning and Argumentative Reasoning for the Analysis of Social Media Textual Content Using Small Data Sets

    , COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS, Vol: 44, Pages: 833-858, ISSN: 0891-2017
    Saputra RP, Kormushev P, 2018,

    Casualty Detection from 3D Point Cloud Data for Autonomous Ground Mobile Rescue Robots

    © 2018 IEEE. One of the most important features of mobile rescue robots is the ability to autonomously detect casualties, i.e. human bodies, which are usually lying on the ground. This paper proposes a novel method for autonomously detecting casualties lying on the ground using obtained 3D point-cloud data from an on-board sensor, such as an RGB-D camera or a 3D LIDAR, on a mobile rescue robot. In this method, the obtained 3D point-cloud data is projected onto the detected ground plane, i.e. floor, within the point cloud. Then, this projected point cloud is converted into a grid-map that is used afterwards as an input for the algorithm to detect human body shapes. The proposed method is evaluated by performing detections of a human dummy, placed in different random positions and orientations, using an on-board RGB-D camera on a mobile rescue robot called ResQbot. To evaluate the robustness of the casualty detection method to different camera angles, the orientation of the camera is set to different angles. The experimental results show that using the point-cloud data from the on-board RGB-D camera, the proposed method successfully detects the casualty in all tested body positions and orientations relative to the on-board camera, as well as in all tested camera angles.

    Dutordoir V, Salimbeni H, Deisenroth M, Hensman Jet al., 2018,

    Gaussian Process Conditional Density Estimation

    Conditional Density Estimation (CDE) models deal with estimating conditionaldistributions. The conditions imposed on the distribution are the inputs of themodel. CDE is a challenging task as there is a fundamental trade-off betweenmodel complexity, representational capacity and overfitting. In this work, wepropose to extend the model's input with latent variables and use Gaussianprocesses (GP) to map this augmented input onto samples from the conditionaldistribution. Our Bayesian approach allows for the modeling of small datasets,but we also provide the machinery for it to be applied to big data usingstochastic variational inference. Our approach can be used to model densitieseven in sparse data regions, and allows for sharing learned structure betweenconditions. We illustrate the effectiveness and wide-reaching applicability ofour model on a variety of real-world problems, such as spatio-temporal densityestimation of taxi drop-offs, non-Gaussian noise modeling, and few-shotlearning on omniglot images.

    Wilson J, Hutter F, Deisenroth MP,

    Maximizing acquisition functions for Bayesian optimization

    , Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS) 2018, Publisher: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, ISSN: 1049-5258

    Bayesian optimization is a sample-efficient approach to global optimization that relies on theoretically motivated value heuristics (acquisition functions) to guide its search process. Fully maximizing acquisition functions produces the Bayes' decision rule, but this ideal is difficult to achieve since these functions are frequently non-trivial to optimize. This statement is especially true when evaluating queries in parallel, where acquisition functions are routinely non-convex, high-dimensional, and intractable. We first show that acquisition functions estimated via Monte Carlo integration are consistently amenable to gradient-based optimization. Subsequently, we identify a common family of acquisition functions, including EI and UCB, whose characteristics not only facilitate but justify use of greedy approaches for their maximization.

    Schulz C, Toni F, 2018,

    On the responsibility for undecisiveness in preferred and stable labellings in abstract argumentation

    , ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Vol: 262, Pages: 301-335, ISSN: 0004-3702
    Wang K, Shah A, Kormushev P, 2018,

    SLIDER: A Bipedal Robot with Knee-less Legs and Vertical Hip Sliding Motion

    Sæmundsson S, Hofmann K, Deisenroth MP, 2018,

    Meta reinforcement learning with latent variable Gaussian processes

    , Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI) 2018, Publisher: Association for Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (AUAI)

    Learning from small data sets is critical inmany practical applications where data col-lection is time consuming or expensive, e.g.,robotics, animal experiments or drug design.Meta learning is one way to increase the dataefficiency of learning algorithms by general-izing learned concepts from a set of trainingtasks to unseen, but related, tasks. Often, thisrelationship between tasks is hard coded or re-lies in some other way on human expertise.In this paper, we frame meta learning as a hi-erarchical latent variable model and infer therelationship between tasks automatically fromdata. We apply our framework in a model-based reinforcement learning setting and showthat our meta-learning model effectively gen-eralizes to novel tasks by identifying how newtasks relate to prior ones from minimal data.This results in up to a60%reduction in theaverage interaction time needed to solve taskscompared to strong baselines.

    Cocarascu O, Cyras K, Toni F, 2018,

    Explanatory predictions with artificial neural networks and argumentation

    , Workshop on Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI)

    Data-centric AI has proven successful in severaldomains, but its outputs are often hard to explain.We present an architecture combining ArtificialNeural Networks (ANNs) for feature selection andan instance of Abstract Argumentation (AA) forreasoning to provide effective predictions, explain-able both dialectically and logically. In particular,we train an autoencoder to rank features in input ex-amples, and select highest-ranked features to gen-erate an AA framework that can be used for mak-ing and explaining predictions as well as mappedonto logical rules, which can equivalently be usedfor making predictions and for explaining.Weshow empirically that our method significantly out-performs ANNs and a decision-tree-based methodfrom which logical rules can also be extracted.

    Pardo F, Tavakoli A, Levdik V, Kormushev Pet al., 2018,

    Time limits in reinforcement learning

    , International Conference on Machine Learning, Pages: 4042-4051

    In reinforcement learning, it is common to let anagent interact for a fixed amount of time with itsenvironment before resetting it and repeating theprocess in a series of episodes. The task that theagent has to learn can either be to maximize itsperformance over (i) that fixed period, or (ii) anindefinite period where time limits are only usedduring training to diversify experience. In thispaper, we provide a formal account for how timelimits could effectively be handled in each of thetwo cases and explain why not doing so can causestate-aliasing and invalidation of experience re-play, leading to suboptimal policies and traininginstability. In case (i), we argue that the termi-nations due to time limits are in fact part of theenvironment, and thus a notion of the remainingtime should be included as part of the agent’s in-put to avoid violation of the Markov property. Incase (ii), the time limits are not part of the envi-ronment and are only used to facilitate learning.We argue that this insight should be incorporatedby bootstrapping from the value of the state atthe end of each partial episode. For both cases,we illustrate empirically the significance of ourconsiderations in improving the performance andstability of existing reinforcement learning algo-rithms, showing state-of-the-art results on severalcontrol tasks.

    Altuncu MT, Mayer E, Yaliraki SN, Barahona Met al., 2018,

    From Text to Topics in Healthcare Records: An Unsupervised Graph Partitioning Methodology

    Electronic Healthcare Records contain large volumes of unstructured data,including extensive free text. Yet this source of detailed information oftenremains under-used because of a lack of methodologies to extract interpretablecontent in a timely manner. Here we apply network-theoretical tools to analysefree text in Hospital Patient Incident reports from the National HealthService, to find clusters of documents with similar content in an unsupervisedmanner at different levels of resolution. We combine deep neural networkparagraph vector text-embedding with multiscale Markov Stability communitydetection applied to a sparsified similarity graph of document vectors, andshowcase the approach on incident reports from Imperial College Healthcare NHSTrust, London. The multiscale community structure reveals different levels ofmeaning in the topics of the dataset, as shown by descriptive terms extractedfrom the clusters of records. We also compare a posteriori against hand-codedcategories assigned by healthcare personnel, and show that our approachoutperforms LDA-based models. Our content clusters exhibit good correspondencewith two levels of hand-coded categories, yet they also provide further medicaldetail in certain areas and reveal complementary descriptors of incidentsbeyond the external classification taxonomy.

    Muggleton S, Dai WZ, Sammut C, Tamaddoni-Nezhad A, Wen J, Zhou ZHet al., 2018,

    Meta-Interpretive Learning from noisy images

    , Machine Learning, Vol: 107, Pages: 1097-1118, ISSN: 0885-6125

    Statistical machine learning is widely used in image classification. However, most techniques (1) require many images to achieve high accuracy and (2) do not provide support for reasoning below the level of classification, and so are unable to support secondary reasoning, such as the existence and position of light sources and other objects outside the image. This paper describes an Inductive Logic Programming approach called Logical Vision which overcomes some of these limitations. LV uses Meta-Interpretive Learning (MIL) combined with low-level extraction of high-contrast points sampled from the image to learn recursive logic programs describing the image. In published work LV was demonstrated capable of high-accuracy prediction of classes such as regular polygon from small numbers of images where Support Vector Machines and Convolutional Neural Networks gave near random predictions in some cases. LV has so far only been applied to noise-free, artificially generated images. This paper extends LV by (a) addressing classification noise using a new noise-telerant version of the MIL system Metagol, (b) addressing attribute noise using primitive-level statistical estimators to identify sub-objects in real images, (c) using a wider class of background models representing classical 2D shapes such as circles and ellipses, (d) providing richer learnable background knowledge in the form of a simple but generic recursive theory of light reflection. In our experiments we consider noisy images in both natural science settings and in a RoboCup competition setting. The natural science settings involve identification of the position of the light source in telescopic and microscopic images, while the RoboCup setting involves identification of the position of the ball. Our results indicate that with real images the new noise-robust version of LV using a single example (i.e. one-shot LV) converges to an accuracy at least comparable to a thirty-shot statistical machine learner on bot

    Altuncu MT, Yaliraki SN, Barahona M, 2018,

    Content-driven, unsupervised clustering of news articles through multiscale graph partitioning

    , KDD 2018 - Workshop on Data Science Journalism and Media (DSJM)

    The explosion in the amount of news and journalistic content being generatedacross the globe, coupled with extended and instantaneous access to informationthrough online media, makes it difficult and time-consuming to monitor newsdevelopments and opinion formation in real time. There is an increasing needfor tools that can pre-process, analyse and classify raw text to extractinterpretable content; specifically, identifying topics and content-drivengroupings of articles. We present here such a methodology that brings togetherpowerful vector embeddings from Natural Language Processing with tools fromGraph Theory that exploit diffusive dynamics on graphs to reveal naturalpartitions across scales. Our framework uses a recent deep neural network textanalysis methodology (Doc2vec) to represent text in vector form and thenapplies a multi-scale community detection method (Markov Stability) topartition a similarity graph of document vectors. The method allows us toobtain clusters of documents with similar content, at different levels ofresolution, in an unsupervised manner. We showcase our approach with theanalysis of a corpus of 9,000 news articles published by Vox Media over oneyear. Our results show consistent groupings of documents according to contentwithout a priori assumptions about the number or type of clusters to be found.The multilevel clustering reveals a quasi-hierarchy of topics and subtopicswith increased intelligibility and improved topic coherence as compared toexternal taxonomy services and standard topic detection methods.

    Law M, Russo A, Broda K, 2018,

    The complexity and generality of learning answer set programs

    , ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Vol: 259, Pages: 110-146, ISSN: 0004-3702
    Kamthe S, Deisenroth MP, 2018,

    Data-efficient reinforcement learning with probabilistic model predictive control

    , Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, Publisher: PMLR, Pages: 1701-1710

    Trial-and-error based reinforcement learning(RL) has seen rapid advancements in recenttimes, especially with the advent of deep neural networks. However, the majority of autonomous RL algorithms require a large number of interactions with the environment. Alarge number of interactions may be impractical in many real-world applications, such asrobotics, and many practical systems have toobey limitations in the form of state spaceor control constraints. To reduce the numberof system interactions while simultaneouslyhandling constraints, we propose a modelbased RL framework based on probabilisticModel Predictive Control (MPC). In particular, we propose to learn a probabilistic transition model using Gaussian Processes (GPs)to incorporate model uncertainty into longterm predictions, thereby, reducing the impact of model errors. We then use MPC tofind a control sequence that minimises theexpected long-term cost. We provide theoretical guarantees for first-order optimality inthe GP-based transition models with deterministic approximate inference for long-termplanning. We demonstrate that our approachdoes not only achieve state-of-the-art dataefficiency, but also is a principled way for RLin constrained environments.

    Cully A, Demiris Y, 2018,

    Quality and Diversity Optimization: A Unifying Modular Framework

    Cully A, Demiris Y,

    Hierarchical Behavioral Repertoires with Unsupervised Descriptors

    Enabling artificial agents to automatically learn complex, versatile andhigh-performing behaviors is a long-lasting challenge. This paper presents astep in this direction with hierarchical behavioral repertoires that stackseveral behavioral repertoires to generate sophisticated behaviors. Eachrepertoire of this architecture uses the lower repertoires to create complexbehaviors as sequences of simpler ones, while only the lowest repertoiredirectly controls the agent's movements. This paper also introduces a novelapproach to automatically define behavioral descriptors thanks to anunsupervised neural network that organizes the produced high-level behaviors.The experiments show that the proposed architecture enables a robot to learnhow to draw digits in an unsupervised manner after having learned to draw linesand arcs. Compared to traditional behavioral repertoires, the proposedarchitecture reduces the dimensionality of the optimization problems by ordersof magnitude and provides behaviors with a twice better fitness. Moreimportantly, it enables the transfer of knowledge between robots: ahierarchical repertoire evolved for a robotic arm to draw digits can betransferred to a humanoid robot by simply changing the lowest layer of thehierarchy. This enables the humanoid to draw digits although it has never beentrained for this task.

    Saputra RP, Kormushev P, 2018,

    ResQbot: A Mobile Rescue Robot for Casualty Extraction

    , Pages: 239-240

    © 2018 Authors. Performing search and rescue missions in disaster-struck environments is challenging. Despite the advances in the robotic search phase of the rescue missions, few works have been focused on the physical casualty extraction phase. In this work, we propose a mobile rescue robot that is capable of performing a safe casualty extraction routine. To perform this routine, this robot adopts a loco-manipulation approach. We have designed and built a mobile rescue robot platform called ResQbot as a proof of concept of the proposed system. We have conducted preliminary experiments using a sensorised human-sized dummy as a victim, to confirm that the platform is capable of performing a safe casualty extraction procedure.

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